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What is Collagen and How Can It Help My Dog?

I’ve been hearing and seeing a lot about collagen in pet foods lately, and as a pet food nutritionist, I decided to look into collagen a little more to see if it is something support wellness and vitality in our 4-legged family members.

It seems like collagen is the cure all for many different conditions in our beloved pets, but do we know why and how it works?

Collagen is a protein, one of the most abundant proteins found in the body. As our pets get older, their ability to produce collagen is decreased.  Collagen is all over, in muscles, bones, skin, tendons, blood vessels and even the digestive system, but, most importantly, collagen is a main component of cartilage.

There are 3 types of collagen found in the different areas of the body. All three are important, but work for different parts of the body. Type I & III are excellent for maintenance in skin, muscles and bones. Type II is found in joint & cartilage function.

In tendons and joints, collagen acts as a “glue” that holds the body together. Increasing collagen intake helps provide more “glue” to joints and tendons therefore can support mobility, bone strength and joint flexibility.

In skin and coat, collagen works to “renew” dead cells, creating constant new growth of skin cells and hair follicles to support a healthy, shiny, lustrous and full coat and healthy skin. Collagen also helps to lock in moisture in the skin to keep skin soft and moist.

A dog’s digestive system can also benefit from collagen supplementation, as this complex protein helps to repair cells in the digestive tract. Digestion is key to wellbeing, as that is where almost all the body’s nutrients are absorbed.

Adding an excellent source of collagen to your dog’s daily food intake will not only help increase their vitality and movement but will also help support healthy skin and a shiny coat and may just be that extra protein your pet needs to thrive for many years to come!



To learn about The Missing Link’s Collagen soft chew, see our blog post:

Carolyn Kennedy is the Director of CK Nutrition, a pet food consultancy dedicated to helping pet food companies around the world. With a passion for pet food and health, Carolyn is always looking at new ingredients and ways to enhance wellbeing; not only for Eddie (3) but for all pets everywhere.

Say Hello to The Missing Link® Collagen Care™

NEW Collagen Care™ from The Missing Link is super-concentrated, bite-sized soft chews featuring the most effective and cutting-edge ingredients specifically formulated to target a dog’s biggest health and wellness issues, such as joint pain, skin & coat issues and anxiety.

Collagen Care Calm, Hip & Joint, Skin & Coat array

Collagen is not just a trendy ingredient, it is the primary protein in a dog’s connective tissue, skin and bones. In fact, collagen makes up 30% of the total protein in their body (70% of the protein in their skin and coat alone!). As dogs age, their capacity to produce collagen diminishes making them more susceptible to injuries, painful conditions of the bones and joints, and poor skin and coat health. Lost collagen can be replaced through supplementation, and the earlier you begin providing additional collagen in your dog’s diet, the more likely you are to help prevent problems.

Collagen Care - Learn About


Provides your dog’s body with essential amino acids for bone strength & elasticity, helps maintain cartilage and connective tissue, supports age-related joint pain and healthy anti-inflammatory response.

Key Ingredient Solutions:

  • Collagen Type II (chicken) – provides amino acids for bone strength & joint flexibility
  • Glucosamine – Supports age-related joint comfort
  • Chondroitin – Helps maintain cartilage and connective tissue
  • Turmeric & Ground Flaxseed – support healthy inflammatory response
Shop now for Collagen Care Hips & Joints


Through the power of collagen and other skin healthy ingredients, these chews support a healthy, moisturized; soft, and shiny coat by helping with dry, itchy and dull coat issues.

Key Ingredient Solutions:

  • Collagen Type I & III (marine) – Helps support hair growth, strong nails and a healthy coat
  • Ground Flax Seed – Helps promote a glossy coat
  • Fish Oil – Helps maintain healthy skin
  • Coconut Oil – Helps maintain moisture levels
Shop now for Collagen Care Skin & Coat


With a unique combination of collagen and other calming ingredients, these chews help your dog relax without feeling drowsy and soothes occasional gastric distress. Great for dogs that are anxious around fireworks, visitors, car rides, grooming/vet visits, have sleeping issues or need to calm and focus in order to train. We’ve added probiotics to help with gastric distress which has been shown to be connected to anxiety issues.

Key Ingredient Solutions:

  • Collagen Type I & III (marine) – Helps soothe occasional gastric distress
  • Broad Spectrum Hemp – A NON- psychoactive ingredient that supports behavior modification and training programs
  • Probiotics – Helps soothe occasional gastric distress
  • Chamomile – Promotes a sense of relaxation and mental alertness without drowsiness
  • L-Theanine – Helps dogs cope with external stresses like fireworks, car rides and new visitors
Shop now for Collagen Care Calm & Focus
Non-GMO assurance, Made in the USA


What are the benefits of Collagen?

Skin & Coat

  • Promotes healthy skin
  • Supports wound healing
  • Supports tissue health

Hips & Joints

  • Collagen Type II contains chondroitin, hyaluronic acid, and the antioxidant proteoglycan
  • Promotes collagen formation
  • Supports bone, muscle, tendon, and ligament health

Calm & Focus

  • Promotes better sleep quality
  • Improves cognition
  • Supports brain function
  • Reduces anxiety

Can I give these chews to puppies?

Skin & Coat: Puppies can be given the Skin & Coat chew if it is fully weaned from its mother and eating solid food without issue.

Hips & Joints / Calm & Focus: These chews are not suitable for puppies under 1 year of age and are recommended only for adult dogs.

Can these products be used on pregnant or nursing dogs?

We recommend consulting your veterinarian prior to ensure the health and safety of the mother and puppies.

I noticed Brewers Dried Yeast is an ingredient used in Collagen Care™ Skin & Coat. Could this be contributing to my dogs allergy/yeast issues?

The type of yeast used, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewer’s yeast), is a different species than the type that causes yeast infections, such as Candida albicans. The brewer’s yeast used does contain gluten.

How should the Collagen Care™ chews be stored?

The chews can be stored in the original jar they were purchased in. Be sure to securely close the lid after each use and store the product in a cool, dry location out of reach of children and animals.

Can I freeze the Collagen Care™ chews?

We do not recommend freezing the chews and instead storing them in a cool, dry location out of reach of children and animals.

Can I give Collagen Care™ chews to cats or other small pets?

No. These chews are intended only for canine consumption.

Can I feed my dog more than one type of Collagen Care™, for example Skin & Coat and Hips & Joints?

Yes. There is no risk of over-supplementation if the directions for use are followed on the packaging according to your dogs size.

If I’m already giving my pet TMLO powders in their food, is it safe to also give them the soft chews?  Should I cut back on how much I’m giving of either one?

It is safe to give your dogs both The Missing Link Original powder and Collagen Care soft chews at the same time. We recommend following the feeding directions on both packages and there is no need to reduce the recommended feeding size.

Does the Calm & Focus product with hemp get my dog “high“?

The Calm & Focus chew with hemp does not contain the psychoactive compounds and your animal is not at risk of feeling “high.”

What is the source of the Hemp used in Collagen Care™ Calm & Focus?

The source is from industrial hemp grown in Colorado and Kentucky.

What is the extraction method of the broad-spectrum hemp in Collagen Care™ Calm & Focus?

The method used for extraction is proprietary, but the material is tested at certified third party labs for purity, pesticides, heavy metals, residual solvents, microbiology, and mycotoxins to ensure it meets specifications for safety and purity.

What is the benefit of this Ingredient / why is this ingredient in the product?

5 Tips to Make Clear the Shelters Day the Best Yet!

Clear the Shelters day is coming up on Saturday!  The goal is to get all the shelter pups across the country adopted!  Let’s all make this an epic day of adoption, here are some recommendations on how you can help get your own local shelter cleared out!

clear the shelters day

1. Volunteer on Clear the Shelters Day (& Other Weekends Too)! 

Most shelters are woefully short staffed, run in large part by volunteers or staff members who can barely make ends meet!  As a result, most shelters are stretched thin when it comes to shelter greeters, and it’s not usually possible for shelter staff to provide all visitors with adequate attention. 

The problem is; shelters can be as stressful for humans as they are for the animals!

clear the shelters day


For new shelter visitors, having a volunteer free to guide them around the shelter and show them a few favorite four-legged candidates can make a big difference. 

Try to find out what kind of pet would best match the family’s lifestyle and desires- do they want a little or big dog? Any certain breeds they’re after? What kind of traits are they looking for (good with kids? High-energy? Low Energy? Apartment-friendly?) 

For Clear the Shelters day, do your best to keep a quick cheat sheet list of dogs that meet the most-requested criteria (Cheat sheets tend to have categories such as: house-trained, kid-friendly, dog-friendly, cat-friendly, and can be left alone). While there probably aren’t many (or any) shelter pets that will match all of those criteria, there are probably several that fulfill at least a couple of them. 

If visitors come in but just aren’t quite ready to commit, you can suggest that they really do some soul searching about what kind of cat or canine they want in their lives. The website, has a dog adoption guide that includes a dog trait scorecard that would-be adopters can utilize to evaluate and score possible adoptees. It might sound strange, however, having a scorecard to score various adoption candidates can really help narrow down the selection and make choosing a shelter pet a much more manageable endeavor. 

2. Post on Social Media That Now’s the Time to Adopt!

People online love shelter pets (to be fair, who doesn’t?). Make sure to spread the word about Clear the Shelters day on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or any other social media network you frequent!

Be sure to tag your local animal shelter and even post photos of some of the Clear the Shelters day action happening on site, if you can. Remind your followers that the goal today is to get as many pets adopted as possible! 

Many shelters are also running discounted adoption fees (or even no adoption fees at all)! If money has been a factor in the past, it doesn’t have to be on the 17th!

3. Remind Your Friends and Family Members

Yes, it’s true that social media is a powerful tool, but it’s still no substitute for good ol’ fashioned word of mouth! If you have friends or family members who have been toying with the idea of adopting, now is the time to give them a gentle nudge. 

No one is advocating pressuring folks into taking on a responsibility they aren’t ready for, but if all their ducks are already in a row, Clear the Shelters day is a great time to bring home a new friend!

4. Post Flyers to Promote Your Favorite Pets

If you regularly volunteer at a neighborhood shelter, you probably have gotten to know a handful of dogs or kitties who have captured your heart. You’d bring them home if you could, but you can’t. Well, you can do the next best thing – help get them into a loving furever home!

Show off your favorite shelter pets by giving them their own colorful flyers broadcasting all their best traits (whether they are pro snugglers, great home alarm system, or high-octane running buddies)!

clear the shelters day

Pin up those flyers before Clear the Shelters day if you can (although this is still a great strategy for getting any shelter pet adopted or for promoting a foster pet). Some pet-pondering passerby might see your poster and fall in love! 

5. Ask Your Vet’s Office to Spread the Word

Many families aren’t single-pet households (or at least don’t stay that way for long). A lot of owners choose to have two or more pets in their household for double the fur and double the fun! 

clear the shelters day

Everyone who visits a vet’s office likely has an existing pet, but that doesn’t mean they’re not up for adding another furry family member to the pack! Call your vet’s office and ask if they’ve been telling folks about Clear the Shelters day. You could even ask if the office would allow you to post flyers promoting the event, or some of the pet profile flyers mentioned above. 

It’s important to remember that any new canine should be safely be introduced to the resident dog before signing off on those adoption papers. Most shelters have a behaviorist or two on staff that have experience managing dog on dog introductions. 

Keep in mind that it may take a few weeks for a new and existing dog to really get the hang of each other. At least a bit of frustration and annoyance is bound to ensue, especially if you’re introducing a new puppy to an older resident dog. Just be patient and give both dogs time to adjust. They may end up best buds. Or it might not work out. Either way is fine, so long as you have given it a fair shot!

Written by our friend Megan, Founder of K9 of Mine. You can find more information about adopting a shelter pet and other helpful pet care tips at her website

Importance of Nutrition for Animals: Black Rhino Study

Though there has been an increase in overall numbers of African rhinos in the world, the Black Rhino, in particular, has been declining quickly. In fact, they have been declining faster than any other large terrestrial mammal that has been documented in recent history.

The Black Rhino is one of five types of the rhinoceros species, and both their numbers as well as their available habitat has been experiencing a considerable downward slope.

Habitat encroachment, as well as poaching, are the culprits currently contributing to the Black Rhino’s rapid deterioration in numbers, and to date, there are no effective management techniques that have been developed to prevent this or slow it down. This is the reason that a lot of effort is being put into maintaining this disappearing species in homes like zoos and other protected environments.

Unfortunately, however, public zoos often have significant cost and availability limitations when it comes to what they can feed their animals to keep them healthy and nourished.

In the case of the Black Rhinoceros, the costs are simply too prohibitive to import their native African diet to North America, and sadly, there are not very many places here in the States that offer a suitable habitat and suitable temperatures to grow native African plants.

Because of these limitations, it means that most Black Rhinos get fed a diet very similar in composition to that which is given to White Rhinos, despite their significant differences both chemically and physically when it comes to what these two beasts eat in the wild.

For instance, the White Rhino likes to graze, and typically consumes more grass instead of shrubs and trees. The Black Rhino, however, mostly consumes trees and shrubs, and rarely eats grass unless by accident while eating shrubbery.

A White Rhinos main diet in captivity is typically alfalfa sprouts and green pellets as well as grass hays. Obviously, when this same diet is fed to the Black Rhinoceros, it does not do a great job of mimicking their natural diet in the wild at all.

As a result, many of the Black Rhinos in captivity appear to be developing a whole host of health concerns and diseases that are not being seen in other rhinoceros species like the White Rhino. This is thought to possibly be related to the different nutrient requirements of the Black Rhinoceros and the nutritional differences in the native diet of trees and shrubs versus the diet they are fed while in captivity, which is largely a blend of hay and grain pellets.

In particular, differences in essential fatty acid composition is thought to be a big culprit to the health concerns and diseases that are being seen, as the fatty acids that Black Rhinos consume in captivity are a poor match for what they would normally consume in the wild, both in levels as well as ratios.

In the case of the Black Rhinoceros, a study was done giving them a fatty acid supplement from The Missing Link® on a regular basis. This supplementation resulted in marked improvements in their health and well-being.

The Black Rhinos were fed The Missing Link, giving them important and effective ratios of both linoleic acid, which is an omega-6 fatty acid, and alpha linolenic acid, which is an omega-3 fatty acid.

It is thought that for rhinos, as well as other animal species who may be given fatty acid supplements, it is much more important to determine the proper ratios of fatty acids to give them than it is to determine the overall levels of fatty acids they should consume. Quantity doesn’t matter as much as a proper balance does.

One Eastern Black Rhino, in particular, seemed to benefit amazingly well from The Missing Link supplement: a younger, female Black Rhino named Lucy. She first came to the United States from a South African elephant park.

When she arrived in the States, she was three years old and had a healthy balance of linoleic and alpha-linoleic acids as her baseline. Within a year of arrival, she suffered a series of concerning blood health problems thought to be related to diet and the ratios of EFA’s she was consuming.

During the study, Lucy was flown in food from Zimbabwe, and because of the diet changes, researchers noticed a significant improvement in her health. This led them to begin to look for other ways they could meet Black Rhinos nutritional requirements, without importing weekly food from Africa.

They did some blood testing to measure Lucy’s fatty acid profiles as well as the profiles of four other Black Rhinos, in order to establish some baseline levels. Before supplementation, Lucy and her friends were also fed a diet of ground aspen feed pellets and alfalfa hay, as well as some oranges in small amounts. They were also fed various plants like honeysuckle, willow, and mulberry, plus given a small salt block to lick. The selected rhinos were then given The Missing Link nutritional supplements that are composed of (at minimum) 18% linoleic acid, and 50% linolenic acid.

As the researchers monitored these Black Rhinos over the course of four months, they noticed that not only did the animal’s fatty acid ratios improve, they also noted that the Black Rhino exhibited no ill side effects from the supplementation.

Lucy, the Black Rhino that was so ill at one point, was given only The Missing Link supplement, and her aspen feed pellets. The supplement played a big part in her health improvements and she showed no signs of the issues and diseases she had previously suffered from.

Meanwhile, as Lucy was being treated and monitored, another female Black Rhino, also three years old, arrived in the United States and showed the same ratios of essential fatty acids as Lucy had when it was thought they could be potentially harming her health.

Based on the results of the study, the conclusion was reached that supplementing with The Missing Link essential fatty acid supplement helped to maintain in the Black Rhinos a healthy and balanced ratio of linoleic acid and linolenic acid that is so important for their well-being. Lucy continued to receive the supplement after the study, and even one year after the study was complete, she was still presenting as healthy and appeared to be doing well.

This study does an excellent job of highlighting the importance of essential fatty acids (which in this case were derived from flax) in an animal’s diet, both large and small. Also, more critically, the importance of maintaining a healthy ratio of fatty acids, not just adequate levels of fatty acids. Since the study, other wild animals held in captivity have been given The Missing Link fatty acid supplements to improve their health and diet, with great success.

This is a partial list of the many different species currently consuming and benefiting from The Missing Link’s fatty acid supplement:

  • Golden Lion Tamarin
  • White-Nosed Coati
  • Coquerel’s Sifaka
  • East African Grey-Crowned Crane
  • Mountain/Woolly Tapir
  • Harris’ Antelope Squirrel
  • Four-Toed Hedgehog
  • Black Lemur
  • Greater Malayan Chevrotain
  • Donkey
  • Jaguar
  • Lion
  • Cat
  • North American Black Bear
  • Dog
  • Giant Eland
  • Mandrill
  • Gelada Baboon
  • Pied Tamarin
  • Red-Tailed Mustached Monkey
  • Prevost’s Squirrel
  • Red Uakari
  • De Brazza’s Monkey
  • One-Horned Rhinoceros
  • Toggenburg Goat
  • Emperor Tamarin
  • Sierra Nevada Black Bear
  • Buff-Cheeked Gibbon
  • Anoa
  • Chimpanzee
  • Black-Handed Spider Monkey
  • Red-Capped Mangabey
  • Orangutan
  • Masai Giraffe
  • Turkmenistan Markhor
  • Horse
  • Japanese Serow
  • North Sulawesi Babirusa
  • Bactrian Camel

The Importance of Essential Fatty Acids

So, just why are these essential fatty acids so important and fundamental in the diet of these animals? Good question. There are actually two types of essential fatty acids, sometimes called EFA’s for short, called omega-3 and omega-6. These EFAs are important because the cell membranes that make up an animal’s skin, fur, and nails are composed of them.

Because of this, EFA’s play a vital role in maintaining the health of an animal’s skin and coat. EFA’s are also used by animals to produce eicosanoids, which is a hormone-like substance that contributes to many necessary and important biological functions in an animal’s body.

These functions can impact body temperature, open and close bronchial passages, stimulate the production of hormones and even give nerve fibers their sensitivity. EFA’s do the same thing in humans as well.

If that’s not enough to convince you of the importance of EFA’s in an animal’s diet, recent research is also showing that not only are they necessary for health, but animals must have an essential balance of these omegas in order for their bodies to function optimally. In other words, they don’t just need the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids at any level, they need them in a particular ratio to each other, properly balanced so that they can work together synergistically to keep an animal’s health in top shape.

Unfortunately, because diet does play such a large role in how EFA’s are obtained, it is easy for animals to suffer deficiencies. Sometimes, diseases and health conditions can create deficiencies, while other times, the deficiency could be contributed to a lack of proper nutrition for that species.

For instance, EFA’s are found in abundance in the leafy plants that roaming animals typically consume in the wild, which is why the Black Rhino that was fed her native diet improved so much. Unfortunately, as we’ve seen, it’s much more difficult to get those fatty acids in a domesticated or captive animal’s daily diet without costly importing expenses, or supplementing.

Signs of an EFA Deficiency

When an animal is suffering from an EFA deficiency, they may commonly experience a myriad of skin and coat problems. You could notice symptoms like greasy, dry, or dull hair and coat, and dry, flaky skin, similar to dandruff.

You may also notice sores, scabbing, and itching, plus notice a slow rate of healing when lesions develop. Balding and loss of hair sometimes occurs, and ear inflammation is a common symptom as well. Sometimes even weight loss and a reduction in growth may occur.

Common conditions that are a result of a deficiency of EFAs are recurrent seasonal pruritus, dermatitis, and eczema. Self-mutilation is often the result of skin problems, especially when combined with compulsive behaviors like itching, constant licking, and scratching.

As you can see, there are many benefits to be found from supplementing with omega fatty acids, including those EFAs derived from plant sources like flax. EFAs are used to help successfully treat and prevent many unhealthy skin conditions, and they may also help to reduce the joint inflammation that can cause stiffness, swelling, and pain.

The Missing Link is a leader in discovering and utilizing the benefits of EFAs in keeping animals both wild and domestic, healthy, happy, and disease-free.

*This article is for informational purposes only. Please see a vet if your pet shows any symptoms.


Kirk Suedmeyer, Wm & Dierenfeld, Ellen. (1998). Clinical experience with fatty acid supplementation in a group of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

How The Missing Link® is Saving Zoo Animals

When it comes to giving an animal the dietary nutrition they need, especially animals that normally live and eat in the wild, human attempts at properly nourishing them can fall flat, to say the least.

Providing domesticated diets to animals can even cause some animal species harm if they aren’t careful to provide the animals exactly what they need, in the ratios they need it, and in the form that it is most readily used by their bodies.

That’s a tall order, but The Missing Link has strived hard to develop products that meet those needs, both for domestic pets as well as for captive zoo animals that would normally consume a wild diet.

When animals in the wild eat, they instinctively eat foods that will provide them with almost perfect nourishment. It’s just the way animals are designed, and it is what makes it hard for humans to emulate.

For humans to mimic that, one must study the animal’s diet, study their body composition, (and other factors too), and then come up with solutions that can meet those nutritional needs best. The Missing Link is a leader in dietary supplementation for animals, providing them with all the benefits of whole food nutrition, even when their overall diet may not be the most ideal.

So, what makes The Missing Link Products so special? The short answer is that they are packed with superfood nutrition. Superfoods are foods that are dense with vital nutrients and wonderful for helping an animal to gain and maintain optimal health.

The nutrients from superfoods are naturally sourced from veggies and fruits that are packed with high levels of health-benefiting antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

Superfoods are the best of the best when it comes to nature and what it offers. When animals are supplemented with The Missing Link products, their bodies are flooded with all the nutrition that can be found in superfoods like flaxseed (an excellent source of omega-3, vitamin B, manganese, fiber, and micro nutrients), kelp, blueberries, eggs, sweet potatoes, carrots, kale, fish oil, salmon, and apple cider vinegar.

Animals that are given The Missing Link supplements on a consistent basis often times enjoy a stronger and healthier immune system, healthier, more elastic skin, a shinier and softer coat, increased and sustained energy levels, a properly functioning digestive system (which is vital for good health), and even improved soft tissue, joint, and muscle function and mobility. This is all because of the beneficial superfoods and how powerful they are. With their Zoo and Rescue initiative, The Missing Link has donated over 1600lbs of superfood pet supplement to animals in captivity and endangered species that are desperately in need of a healthy, balanced nutrition.

This includes animals like the Black Rhino, whose numbers are dwindling due to habitat encroachment and poaching. The rhinos are benefiting from The Missing Link products and improving their health because of the balanced ratio of fatty acids the supplements provide, ratios that are now being found based on new studies, to be necessary for optimal health.

Essential fatty acids contribute to a wide range of body functions, and new studies have revealed that it’s not just about getting “enough” fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6 in an animal’s diet, it’s about getting the right ratio of those fatty acids, and getting them from a quality source, such as flax. When animals get the correct ratios of EFA’s that their body’s need, then their levels of health and vitality improve remarkably. The Missing Link products help make this happen, and are benefiting zoo animals living in captivity everywhere.

Some of the animals given The Missing Link superfood pet supplement include:

  • The Black Rhino
  • Gelada Baboon
  • Chimpanzee
  • Jaguar
  • Lion
  • North American Black Bear
  • Sierra Nevada Black Bear
  • Golden Lion Tamarin
  • Black-Handed Spider Monkey
  • Orangutan
  • Masai Giraffe
  • Gelada Baboon
  • One-Horned Rhino
  • Red-Tailed Mustached Monkey

And many more! As you can see, The Missing Link is making great strides in helping wildlife that’s in captivity become healthy and even thrive, despite a less than ideal diet. Feeding them food they would eat naturally in their home habitat is best, but it’s not cost efficient over the long-term. The Missing Link is stepping in and providing solutions to these problems, and helping to make animals that may be on the endangered list healthier and happier.

*This article is for informational purposes only. Please see a vet if your pet shows any symptoms.


Kirk Suedmeyer, Wm & Dierenfeld, Ellen. (1998). Clinical experience with fatty acid supplementation in a group of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.